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glossary
places of note
 

The Western Front
No-Man's-Land
Ypres Salient
The Pimple
Hill 145
The Labyrinth
La Folie Wood
Bellevue Spur
Crest Farm and Vienna Cottages
Source and Vapour Farms
 
  The Western Front  
 
The Western Front was a stalemated front of approximately 400 miles (it zigzagged and changed from time to time, so a definite length is hard to estimate). It ran from the North Sea to the Swiss Border. The German and Allied armies (Belgian, British, French) faced each other there for four years.
 
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No-Man's-Land
 
 
No-Man's- Land was the land between German and allied lines. It ranged in size from several metres wide to hundreds of metres wide. Swept by machine-gun fire, covered with tangles of barbed wire, pock-marked with shell-holes, strewn with rotting bodies, sometimes stripped of all vegetation, No-Man's-Land was extremely dangerous. But it was visited regularly, usually at night, by raiding or scouting parties. These parties were assigned to reconnoiter, fix barbed wire barriers (or cut the enemy's barbed wire), to raid an enemy trench or eavesdrop and sometimes to bring in the wounded.
 
Ypres Salient  
 
 
The only part of Belgium still in allied hands, the Ypres salient was a bulge of land about nine miles long at its widest point and protruding about four miles eastward in the German lines. It was an area of land decimated by continuous fighting that had turned into an oozing sea of mud. Many wounded soldiers, who under other conditions would have survived, drowned in the mud of the salient.
 
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The Pimple
 
 
Dubbed the Pimple by the British (also known as Hill 13), this area of land, heavily defended by the Germans, was at the northern point of Vimy Ridge overlooking the village of Givenchy. From this position, the Germans bombarded the northern flank of the 4th Division during the Battle of Vimy Ridge. The Pimple was the last area of Vimy Ridge to be captured, during fighting on April 12.
 
Hill 145  
 
 
Hill 145 was the term the Allies gave for the highest point of Vimy Ridge and thus a crucial area for the Canadians to capture. It was also the area closest to Canadian lines, a mere 800 yards away. The 4th Division captured Hill 145 late in the afternoon of April 9. The Canadian National Memorial (see below) now stands there.
 
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The Labyrinth
 
 
A maze of German trenches south of Neuville-St Vaast where heavy fighting occurred between the French and the Germans during May-June 1915, before the Canadian victory on Vimy Ridge.
 
La Folie Wood  
 
 
This farm stood in an area of wooded land just west of Vimy Ridge and was used by the Germans as a stronghold. The farm and the surrounding wood was captured after fierce fighting by the 3rd Division on April 9, 1917.
 
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Bellevue Spur
 
 
The Bellevue Spur was the northern part of the Passchendaele Ridge. It was the responsibility of the 3rd Canadian Division to attack the Bellevue Spur and advance toward Passchendaele.
 
Crest Farm and Vienna Cottages  
 
 
Both Crest Farm and Vienna Cottages were key German strongholds, located west and south of Passchendaele village. The 4th Division suffered many casualties in securing these strongholds for the Canadians.

 
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Source and Vapour Farms
 
 
Source and Vapour Farms were German strongholds on the northern flank of Passchendaele Ridge. It was due to the bravery of Major George Peakes and his battalion (5th Canadian Mounted Rifles) that these strongholds were captured and secured. This was one of the bravest small-group actions, and ensured the success of the attack on October 30. Major Peakes was awarded a VC for his leadership.
 
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